SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) is one of the earliest canopy reflectance models (Verhoef, 1984, 1985) to simulate the bidirectional reflectance factor of turbid medium plant canopies, by solving the scattering and absorption of four upward/downward radiative fluxes. SAIL actually provides all four-stream optical properties (nine in total) of the canopy layer at the output (Verhoef, 1985). 4SAIL is a numerically robust and speed-optimized version of the model (Verhoef et al., 2007).
Four-stream RT modeling concept as applied in SAIL models.
Verhoef et. al., (2007)
ARTMO's 4SAIL input window.
- Jacquemoud, S., Verhoef, W., Baret, F., Bacour, C., Zarco-Tejada, P.J., Asner, G.P., François, C., & Ustin, S.L. (2009), PROSPECT + SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,Remote Sensing of Environment, 113, S56-S66.
- Verhoef, W., Xiao, Q., Jia, L., & Su, Z. (2007), Unified optical-thermal four-stream radiative transfer theory for homogeneous vegetation canopies. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing,45, 1808-1822.
- Verhoef, W. (1985), Earth observation modeling based on layer scattering matrices. Remote Sensing of Environment, 17, 165-178.
- Verhoef, W. (1984), Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model. Remote Sensing of Environment, 16, 125-141